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Pdf expert 12 professional free
A teacher , also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator , is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge , competence or virtue. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone e. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family homeschooling , rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college.
Some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching e. In most countries, formal teaching of students is usually carried out by paid professional teachers. This article focuses on those who are employed , as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training.
Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy , craftsmanship or vocational training , the arts , religion , civics , community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, and assessing pupil progress. A teacher’s professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching. Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls , help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities.
In some education systems, teachers may be responsible for student discipline. Teaching is a highly complex activity. The competences required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world.
Broadly, there seem to be four models:. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers’ career-long education and professional development. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require:. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings:.
It has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. Enthusiastic teachers are rated higher by their students than teachers who didn’t show much enthusiasm for the course materials.
Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm are more likely to have engaged, interested and energetic students who are curious about learning the subject matter. Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students’ intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. The concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher’s enthusiasm may contribute to the student’s expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Also, enthusiasm may act as a “motivational embellishment”, increasing a student’s interest by the variety, novelty, and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher’s presentation of the material. Finally, the concept of emotional contagion may also apply: students may become more intrinsically motivated by catching onto the enthusiasm and energy of the teacher.
Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are closely linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are particularly good at creating beneficial relations with their students. Their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students.
A teacher must guide their student in aligning their personal goals with their academic goals. Students who receive this positive influence show stronger self-confidence and greater personal and academic success than those without these teacher interactions. Students are likely to build stronger relations with teachers who are friendly and supportive and will show more interest in courses taught by these teachers.
Effective teachers have been shown to invite student participation and decision making, allow humor into their classroom, and demonstrate a willingness to play. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college.
These professional qualifications may include the study of pedagogy , the science of teaching. Teachers, like other professionals, may have to, or choose to, continue their education after they qualify, a process known as continuing professional development.
The issue of teacher qualifications is linked to the status of the profession. In some societies, teachers enjoy a status on a par with physicians , lawyers , engineers , and accountants , in others, the status of the profession is low. In the twentieth century, many intelligent women were unable to get jobs in corporations or governments so many chose teaching as a default profession.
As women become more welcomed into corporations and governments today, it may be more difficult to attract qualified teachers in the future. Teachers are often required to undergo a course of initial education at a College of Education to ensure that they possess the necessary knowledge, competences and adhere to relevant codes of ethics. There are a variety of bodies designed to instill, preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers. Around the world many teachers’ colleges exist; they may be controlled by government or by the teaching profession itself.
They are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying , governing, quality controlling, and enforcing standards of practice for the teaching profession. The functions of the teachers’ colleges may include setting out clear standards of practice, providing for the ongoing education of teachers, investigating complaints involving members, conducting hearings into allegations of professional misconduct and taking appropriate disciplinary action and accrediting teacher education programs.
In many situations teachers in publicly funded schools must be members in good standing with the college, and private schools may also require their teachers to be college members. In other areas these roles may belong to the State Board of Education , the Superintendent of Public Instruction , the State Education Agency or other governmental bodies.
In still other areas Teaching Unions may be responsible for some or all of these duties. Misconduct by teachers, especially sexual misconduct , has been getting increased scrutiny from the media and the courts. A study in England showed a 0. It is therefore logical to conclude that information on the percentage of abuses by teachers in the United Kingdom is not explicitly available and therefore not necessarily reliable. The AAUW study, however, posed questions about fourteen types of sexual harassment and various degrees of frequency and included only abuses by teachers.
Chris Keates , the general secretary of National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers , said that teachers who have sex with pupils over the age of consent should not be placed on the sex offenders register and that prosecution for statutory rape “is a real anomaly in the law that we are concerned about.
Teachers facilitate student learning, often in a school or academy or perhaps in another environment such as outdoors. The objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills , knowledge or thinking skills. Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use teachers consider students’ background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority.
Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips. The increasing use of technology , specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade, has begun to shape the way teachers approach their roles in the classroom. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan , or a practical skill. A teacher may follow standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher may interact with students of different ages, from infants to adults, students with different abilities and students with learning disabilities.
Teaching using pedagogy also involve assessing the educational levels of the students on particular skills. Understanding the pedagogy of the students in a classroom involves using differentiated instruction as well as supervision to meet the needs of all students in the classroom. Pedagogy can be thought of in two manners. First, teaching itself can be taught in many different ways, hence, using a pedagogy of teaching styles. Second, the pedagogy of the learners comes into play when a teacher assesses the pedagogic diversity of their students and differentiates for the individual students accordingly.
For example, an experienced teacher and parent described the place of a teacher in learning as follows: “The real bulk of learning takes place in self-study and problem solving with a lot of feedback around that loop.
The function of the teacher is to pressure the lazy, inspire the bored, deflate the cocky, encourage the timid, detect and correct individual flaws, and broaden the viewpoint of all.
This function looks like that of a coach using the whole gamut of psychology to get each new class of rookies off the bench and into the game. Perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum.
In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have ten or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.
This is true throughout most of the United States as well. However, alternative approaches for primary education do exist. One of these, sometimes referred to as a “platoon” system, involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject. The advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects.
Students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes. Co-teaching has also become a new trend amongst educational institutions. Co-teaching is defined as two or more teachers working harmoniously to fulfill the needs of every student in the classroom. Co-teaching focuses the student on learning by providing a social networking support that allows them to reach their full cognitive potential.
Co-teachers work in sync with one another to create a climate of learning. Throughout the history of education the most common form of school discipline was corporal punishment.
While a child was in school, a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent , with all the normal forms of parental discipline open to them.
In past times, corporal punishment spanking or paddling or caning or strapping or birching the student in order to cause physical pain was one of the most common forms of school discipline throughout much of the world. Most Western countries, and some others, have now banned it, but it remains lawful in the United States following a US Supreme Court decision in which held that paddling did not violate the US Constitution.
It is still used to a significant though declining degree in some public schools in Alabama , Arkansas , Georgia , Louisiana , Mississippi , Oklahoma , Tennessee and Texas.
Private schools in these and most other states may also use it. Corporal punishment in American schools is administered to the seat of the student’s trousers or skirt with a specially made wooden paddle. This often used to take place in the classroom or hallway, but nowadays the punishment is usually given privately in the principal’s office.
Official corporal punishment, often by caning, remains commonplace in schools in some Asian, African and Caribbean countries. Currently detention is one of the most common punishments in schools in the United States, the UK, Ireland, Singapore and other countries.
It requires the pupil to remain in school at a given time in the school day such as lunch, recess or after school ; or even to attend school on a non-school day, e. During detention, students normally have to sit in a classroom and do work, write lines or a punishment essay, or sit quietly.
A modern example of school discipline in North America and Western Europe relies upon the idea of an assertive teacher who is prepared to impose their will upon a class. Positive reinforcement is balanced with immediate and fair punishment for misbehavior and firm, clear boundaries define what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
Teachers are expected to respect their students; sarcasm and attempts to humiliate pupils are seen as falling outside of what constitutes reasonable discipline. Whilst this is the consensus viewpoint amongst the majority of academics, some teachers and parents advocate a more assertive and confrontational style of discipline  refer to Canter Model of Discipline.
This viewpoint is supported by the educational attainment of countries—in East Asia for instance—that combine strict discipline with high standards of education.
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Computer securitycybersecurity cyber securityor information technology security IT security is the protection of computer systems and networks from information disclosure, theft of, or damage to their hardwaresoftwareor electronic dataas well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. The field has become of significance due to the expanded reliance on computer systemsthe Internet pdf expert 12 professional free wireless network standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fiand due to the growth of “smart” devicesincluding smartphonestelevisionsand the various devices that constitute the Internet of pdf expert 12 professional free IoT.
Cybersecurity is also one of the significant challenges in the contemporary worlddue to the complexity of information systemsboth in terms of political usage and technology. Its primary goal is to ensure the system’s dependability, integrity, and data privacy. Since the Internet ‘s arrival and with the digital transformation initiated in recent years, the notion of cybersecurity has become a familiar subject in both our professional and personal lives.
Cybersecurity and cyber threats have been consistently present for the last 50 years of technological change. In the s and s, computer security was mainly limited to academia until the conception of the Internet, where, with increased connectivity, computer viruses and network intrusions began to take off. After the spread of viruses in the s, the s marked the institutionalization [ clarification needed ] of cyber threats and cybersecurity. The April session organized by Willis Ware at the Spring Joint Computer Conferenceand the later publication of the Ware Reportwere foundational moments in the history of the field of computer security.
However, in the s and s there were no grave computer threats because computers and the internet were still developing, and security threats were easily identifiable.
Most often, threats came from malicious insiders who gained unauthorized access to sensitive documents and files. Although узнать больше здесь and network breaches existed during the early years, they did not use them for financial gain. By the second half of the s, established computer firms like IBM started offering commercial access control systems and computer security software products.
It started with Creeper in It is considered the first computer worm. Inthe first anti-virus software was created, called Reaper.
Between September and Junea group of German hackers performed the first documented case of cyber espionage. The group hacked into American defense contractors, universities, and military bases’ networks and sold gathered information to the Soviet Pdf expert 12 professional free. The group was led by Markus Hesswho was arrested on 29 June He was convicted of espionage along with two co-conspirators on 15 Feb Inone of the first computer worms, called the Morris wormwas distributed via the Internet.
It gained significant mainstream media attention. Netscape pdf expert 12 professional free SSL version 1. These weaknesses included replay attacks and a vulnerability that allowed hackers to alter unencrypted communications sent by users. However, in FebruaryNetscape launched the Version 2. Protecting information systems includes evaluating software, identifying security flaws, and taking steps to correct the flaws, which is a defensive action.
Collecting intelligence includes exploiting security flaws to extract information, which is an offensive посетить страницу источник. Correcting security flaws makes the flaws unavailable for NSA exploitation.
The agency analyzes commonly used software in order to find security flaws, which it reserves for offensive purposes against competitors of the United States. The agency seldom takes defensive action by reporting the flaws to software producers so that they can eliminate them.
The offensive strategy worked for a while, but eventually other nations, including RussiaIranNorth Koreaand Chinaacquired their own offensive capability and have tended to use it against the United States. NSA contractors created and sold “click-and-shoot” attack tools to U. NSA’s employees and contractors have been recruited at high salaries by pdf expert 12 professional free, anxious to compete in cyberwarfare. For example, inthe United States and Israel began exploiting security flaws in the Microsoft Windows operating system to attack and damage equipment used in Iran to refine nuclear materials.
Iran responded by heavily investing in their own cyberwarfare capability, which they began using against the United States. A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation, or internal control. Most of the vulnerabilities that have been discovered are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE database.
A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithmis any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or poor configuration. They may have been added by an pdf expert 12 professional free party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability.
Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and backdoors are usually pdf expert 12 professional free by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of the operating system of the computer.
Denial of service attacks DoS are designed to make a ссылка на страницу or network resource unavailable to its intended users.
Перейти на источник a network attack from a single IP address can be blocked by adding a new firewall rule, many forms of Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are possible, where the attack comes from a large number of points — and defending is much more difficult. Such attacks can originate from the zombie computers of a botnet or from a range of other possible techniques, including reflection and amplification attackswhere innocent systems are fooled into sending traffic to the victim.
An unauthorized user gaining physical access to a computer is most likely able to directly copy data from it. They may also compromise security by making operating system modifications, installing software worms, keyloggerscovert listening devices or using wireless microphones. Even when the system is protected by standard security measures, these may be bypassed by booting another operating system or tool from a CD-ROM or other bootable media.
Disk encryption and Trusted Platform Module are designed to prevent these attacks. Eavesdropping is the act of surreptitiously listening to a private computer “conversation” communicationtypically between hosts on a network. Even machines that operate as a closed system i.
Surfacing ina new class of multi-vector,  polymorphic  cyber threats combined several types of attacks and changed form to avoid cybersecurity controls as they spread. Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users.
The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details pdf expert 12 professional free passwords. This information can then be used to gain access to the individual’s real account on the real website. Preying on a victim’s trust, phishing can be classified as a form of social engineering.
Attackers are using creative ways to gain access to real accounts. A common scam is for attackers to send fake electronic invoices  to individuals showing that they recently purchased music, apps, or others, and instructing them to click on a link if the purchases were not authorized.
Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become ” root ” and have full unrestricted access to a system.
Reverse engineering is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, code, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Any computational system pdf expert 12 professional free its environment in some pdf expert 12 professional free. This effect it has on its environment, includes жмите wide range of criteria, which can range from electromagnetic radiation, to residual effect on RAM cells which as pdf expert 12 professional free consequent make a Cold boot attack possible, to hardware implementation faults which allow for access and or guessing of other values that normally should be inaccessible.
In Side-channel attack scenarios the attacker would gather such information about a system or network to guess its internal state, and as a result access the information which is assumed by the victim pdf expert 12 professional free be secure. Social engineeringin the context of computer security, aims to convince a user to disclose secrets such as passwords, card numbers, etc. A common scam involves emails sent to accounting and finance department personnel, impersonating their CEO and urgently requesting some action.
In Maythe Milwaukee Bucks NBA team was the victim of this type of cyber scam with a perpetrator impersonating the team’s president Peter Feiginresulting in the handover of all the team’s employees’ W-2 tax forms. Spoofing is an act of masquerading as a valid entity through falsification of data such as an IP address or usernamepdf expert 12 professional free order to gain access to information or resources that one is otherwise unauthorized to obtain.
Tampering describes a malicious modification pdf expert 12 professional free alteration of data. So-called Evil Maid attacks and security services planting of surveillance capability into routers are examples. Malicious software malware installed on a computer can leak any information, such as personal information, business information and passwords, can give control of the system to the attacker, and can corrupt or delete data permanently.
Employee behavior can have a big impact on information security in organizations. Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization pdf expert 12 professional free effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization.
Information security culture is the ” Andersson and Reimers found that employees often do not see themselves as part of their organization’s information security effort and download quickbooks desktop pro 2020 trial download desktop trial take actions that impede organizational changes. The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at pdf expert 12 professional free.
The computer systems посетить страницу financial regulators and financial institutions like the U.
Securities and Exchange CommissionSWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains.
Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunicationsthe power gridnuclear pdf expert 12 professional free plantsand valve opening and closing in water and gas networks. The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable.
Inthe Computer Emergency Readiness Teama division of the Department of Pdf expert 12 professional free Securityinvestigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies. The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked.
The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life. Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target.
Smartphonestablet computerssmart watchesand other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.
WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach. The increasing number of home automation посмотреть больше such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets.
Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches. Examples include the loss pdf expert 12 professional free millions of clients’ credit card details by Home Depot Staples pdf expert 12 professional free,  Target Corporation and the most recent breach http://replace.me/13570.txt Equifax. Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale.
Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm Pdf expert 12 professional free Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm’s CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group,   and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.
Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise controlanti-lock brakesseat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network.
All of these systems carry some security risk, and pdf expert 12 professional free issues have gained wide attention. Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector,  and the car’s onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping.
However, if access is gained to pdf expert 12 professional free car’s internal controller area networkthe danger is much greater  — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch.
Manufacturers are reacting in numerous ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security продолжить чтение “over the air” into its cars’ computer systems. Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists    and foreign powers. The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronicssoftware pdf expert 12 professional free, sensorsand network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.