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In the row crops of cotton after the 50th day of sowing with or without application of herbicide, the bullock drawn junior hoe was used for inter cultivation. Thus, equipment is restricted to a lightweight power source.❿
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Check that throttle and electric devices are in good working order. Disconnect the battery, remove the saddle and the fairings and drain the coolant. Remove the muffler and the relevant support and remove the rear wheel.
Remove the swinging arm and the accelerator control transmission. Remove the air filter sleeve and the engine earth cable. Disconnect the carburettor electrical devices and the starter motor power supply cable. Disconnect the fuel delivery and return pipes from the carburettor and the cooling system piping outlet from the head and inlet to the thermostat. Disconnect the spark plug H. Automatic transmission Transmission cover – Using a screwdriver, remove the driven pulley axle cover near the bottom of the cap.
Air duct – Remove the transmission cover. Air duct filter – Remove the external air conveyor. Removing the driven pulley shaft bearing – Remove the transmission cover.
Refitting the driven pulley shaft bearing – Heat the transmission cover interior using the heat gun. Baffle roller Plastic roller Installation of belt anti-vibration roller – Install the anti-flapping roller with the lip facing the engine crankcase.
Removing the clutch – To remove the clutch with the driven pulley it is necessary to use the special tool; – Arrange the tool with the mean pins screwed in position “E” on the inside; – Install the driven pulley unit onto the tool inserting the pins into the ventilation holes; – Move the rear stop screw in abutment against the fixed driven pulley as shown in the figure.
Removing the driven half-pulley bearing – Check that the bushing is free from wear and damage; otherwise replace the fixed driven halfpulley. Specific tooling Y Driver for OD 73 mm bearing – Remove the roller bearing using the special tool, supporting the fixed half-pulley with the bell.
Inspecting the driven fixed half-pulley – Check that the belt contact surface is free from wear. Characteristic Minimum admissible diameter Inspecting the driven sliding half-pulley – Check that the belt contact surface is free from wear. Characteristic Maximum admissible diameter: Refitting the driven half-pulley bearing – Install a new roller bearing using the special tool.
If you are working on the driven pulley unit fully assembled, use the special tool. Refitting the driven pulley – Insert the new oil guards – Insert the new O-rings N. This operation is necessary to avoid the presence of grease beyond the O-rings. ENG – Inspecting the clutch spring – Measure the length of the movable driven halfpulley spring while it is unloaded.
Characteristic Minimum thickness permitted: 1 mm – The masses must exhibit no traces of lubricants; in that case, check the driven pulley unit seals. Removing the driving pulley – Using a 27 mm wrench, turn the central pulley nut to horizontally align the central inside holes and install the special tool. Inspecting the rollers case – Check that the inside bushings shown in the figure exhibit no signs of abnormal wear and measure the inside diameter.
Refitting the driving pulley Installing the fixed driving half-pulley – Insert the spacer. Refitting the transmission cover – Install the driving pulley shaft cover, positioning the tooth gap on the lower part with the reference mark on the transmission crankcase.
End gear Removing the hub cover – Drain the rear hub oil through the oil drainage cap located under the engine. Remove the hub cover and the relevant gasket. Removing the wheel axle – Remove the countershaft. Removing the hub bearings – Support the hub cover using the stud bolt set. In case of anomalies, proceed as follows.
To remove the gear shaft bearing on the engine crankcase, use the following parts. Specific tooling Y Calliper to extract mm bearings Y Pliers to extract mm bearings Y Bell – Use the special extractor to disassemble the bearing on the engine chassis of the countershaft. Specific tooling Y Pliers to extract 20 mm bearings Y Bearing housing, outside 47 mm.
Removing the wheel axle bearings – Take out the clip on the outside of the gearbox cover. Removing the driven pulley shaft bearing – If you have to remove the driven pulley shaft, the relevant bearing and the oil guard, remove the transmission cover and the clutch unit as described in the Automatic transmission chapter. Inspecting the hub shaft – Check that the 3 shafts exhibit no wear or deformation on the grooved surfaces, at the bearings and at the oil seals.
Inspecting the hub cover – Check that the mounting surface is not damaged or deformed. In case of faults, replace the hub cover. Specific tooling Y Adaptor handle Y 42xmm Adaptor Y mm guide – Heat the gear shaft bearing seat on the crankcase. Specific tooling Y Adaptor handle Y 42xmm Adaptor Y mm guide – Place the safety lock Seeger ring of the driven pulley shaft bearing.
Refitting the hub cover bearings – Heat the bearing seats on the cover using the heat gun. Specific tooling Y Adaptor handle Y 52xmm Adaptor Y mm guide – Heat the gear shaft bearing seat from the cover outside.
Refitting the ub cover – Check the proper position of the centring dowels. Flywheel cover – Remove the three bands shown in the figure for an easier removal of the flywheel cover, remove the feed hoses and disconnect the return hose from the pump cover. Removing the hub cover – Drain the engine oil by removing the drainage cap.
Removing the flywheel cover components – Loosen the six mounting screws and remove the water pump cover. Inspecting the cover components – Install a new oil filter, lubricate the gasket, screw on and finally tighten to the prescribed torque. Recommended products eni i-Ride PG 5W Synthetic based lubricant for high-performance four-stroke engines.
Characteristic By-pass housing hole diameter: Refitting the stator – Install the stator assembly together with the wiring harness, tightening the 3 screws to the prescribed torque. Refitting the flywheel cover components – Before reassembling, check that all components are perfectly clean.
Refitting the flywheel cover – Lubricate the intermediate gear seat with torque limiter on the flywheel cover. Flywheel and starting The starter is sold as a complete part. Connect the induction clamp of an ammeter to the positive power supply cable of the starter motor. Remove the 10A fuse no. Start the engine so that it cannot move long enough to measure the rpm and starter absorption.
Finally carry out a check of the power consumption at idle speed. Remove the starter motor see the flywheel and starter system. Reconnect the earth and positive and perform the test. Check the new values. YES go to 12 NO go to 13 9 – High trailing speed Low electrical absorption The engine turns too freely, check the compression end pressure.
If the values are not correct proceed as follows. The starter system has a transmission between the motor armature and engine shaft equipped with freewheel coaxial to the flywheel and torque limiter on the intermediate shaft. The limiter is calibrated to 10 kgm Nm ; this component protects the structure of the engine and the starter kinematic mechanism in the event of incorrect starting with consequent inverse rotations.
The freewheel is used for a sufficiently silent starting. The starter control circuit is not controlled by the immobilizer system, therefore before insisting on the starter system, check the consensus of the immobilizer. In order to check the enabling switches circuit, see the Electrical system chapter, whereas to check the engine shaft control transmission, follow what is described in the Flywheel and starter system chapter.
Inspecting the flywheel components – Check the integrity of the magnets. Starter gear rim – Check that there is no wear or abnormal impressions on the “rollers” of the freewheel and on the surface of the starter ring gear hub. Intermediate gear – Check that the toothing is not worn. Driven plates consist of 4 Belleville springs provided with grooved profiles; this assembly allows transmitting torque lower than 10 kg.
In case of incorrect start-up manoeuvres, the limiter prevents any kicks, with consequent reversal of direction of the crankshaft which would impair the engine structure. The limiter assembly cannot be overhauled. In case of irregularities on the toothed discs, replace the assembly. Refitting the free wheel – Make sure the freewheel faying surfaces are in good condition. Refitting the intermediate gear – Lubricate the inside bushing and the starter ring gear hub surface. Refitting the flywheel magneto – Insert the key on the crankshaft.
Refitting the starter motor – Check that the O-ring is in good working order and lubricate it. Cylinder assy. Removing the intake manifold – Remove the 3 mounting screws. Removing the rocker-arms cover – Loosen the 6 special screws with stop and the relevant rubber gaskets. Removing the timing system drive – Turn the engine to close the intake valves, i.
Removing the cam shaft – Unscrew the 3 fastening screws and remove camshaft retaining bracket. Removing the cylinder head – Remove the spark plug. Removing the valves – Using the appropriate tool fitted with an adaptor, remove the cotters, caps, springs and valves. Specific tooling Y Valve cotters equipped with part removal tool Y bush valve removing tool.
Removing the cylinder – piston assy. Inspecting the small end – Using a bore gauge, measure the connecting rod small end diameter. Characteristic Standard diameter: 22 0 Inspecting the piston – Measure the outside diameter of the piston, perpendicular to the gudgeon pin axis. Characteristic Maximum allowable run-out: 0. Inspecting the piston rings – Alternately insert the three sealing rings into the cylinder, in the area where it retains its original diameter. Using the piston, insert the rings perpendicularly to the cylinder axis.
Removing the piston – Install piston and wrist pin onto the connecting rod, aligning the piston arrow the arrow facing towards the exhaust. Choosing the gasket – Provisionally fit the piston into the cylinder, without any base gasket. Correctly identify the cylinder base gasket thickness to keep the correct compression ratio. Refitting the piston rings – Place the scraper ring spring on the piston. The chamfered side of the oil scraper ring should always be facing the piston crown.
In any case, the step must be facing opposite the piston crown. Refitting the cylinder – Insert the cylinder base gasket with the thickness determined above. Inspecting the cylinder head – Using a trued bar and a feeler gauge check that the cylinder head surface is not worn or distorted.
Maximum allowable run-out: 0. Inspecting the timing system components – Check that the guide shoe and the tensioner shoe are not worn out. In case of wear of the sliding blocks, replace them. In case of wear of the chain or rim, replace the entire unit. Check that the one-way mechanism is not worn. Inspecting the valve sealings – Insert the valves into the cylinder head.
Inspecting the valve housings – Clean the valve seats of any carbon residues. Characteristic Standard value: 1 – 1. Inspecting the valves – Measure the diameter of the valve stems in the three positions indicated in the diagram. Inspecting the valve stem guide clearance – After measuring the valve guide diameter and the valve stem diameter, check clearance between guide and stem.
To obtain better sealing performance, grind the valve seats. Grind the valves gently with a fine-grained lapping compound. During the grinding, keep the cylinder head with the valve axes in a horizontal position.
This will prevent the lapping compound residues from penetrating between the valve stem and the guide see figure. Inspecting the springs and half-cones – Check that the upper spring caps and the cotter halves show no signs of abnormal wear. Refitting the valves – Place the valve spring support washers on the head. Specific tooling Y Punch for assembling valve seal rings – Fit the valves, the springs and the caps. Using the appropriate tool with adapter, compress the springs and insert the cotters in their seats.
Specific tooling Y Valve cotters equipped with part removal tool Y bush valve removing tool N. Inspecting the cam shaft – Check that the camshaft bearings exhibit no scores or abnormal wear. Characteristic Standard diameter: 13 – 0. Refitting the head and timing system components – Insert the chain guide sliding block. Clean with compressed air jets, if required. Tighten the 2 fastening screws to the prescribed torque. Recommended products Loctite Medium-strength threadlock Medium Loctite threadlock – Check that the decompression mass is free and that it is pulled by the spring.
Refitting the timing chain The ignition advance is determined electronically on the basis of parameters known by the control unit. For this reason it is not possible to interpret the reference values based on the engine rpm.
The ignition advance value is detectable at any time using the diagnostic tester. It is possible to check whether the ignition advance determined by the injection system matches the value actually activated on the engine, by means of the stroboscopic light. Specific tooling Y Diagnosis Tool Y Stroboscopic light to check timing Proceed as follows: – Remove the outside transmission cover as described in the automatic transmission chapter. See the flywheel cover chapter. Specific tooling Y Diagnosis Tool If the values do not match, check: – distribution timing – revolution timing sensor – injection control unit.
Inspecting the radial air gap – Align a tooth of the tone wheel with the revolution timing sensor. Refitting the intake manifold – Install the intake manifold on the engine.
Crankcase – crankshaft – Remove the outside and inside transmission cover and the complete driving pulley as described in “Automatic transmission”. For this purpose, use a plate e. Characteristic Standard clearance: 0. Splitting the crankcase halves – Remove the engine support retain screw on the flywheel side half-crankcase. Removing the crankshaft – Before removing the crankshaft, check the timing with the countershaft. To carry out this check, turn the crankshaft to align the two holes obtained on the crankshaft with the hole on the countershaft control gear.
This is an optimal position also to remove the crankshaft. Removing the oil pump and countershaft control gear. Remove the gear only if actually required. Replacing the countershaft bearings – Check that the bearings are free from irregular noise or clearance.
If it does, replace it. Flywheel-side half-crankcase – Remove the inside Seeger ring. Specific tooling Y Adaptor handle Y 37xmm Adaptor Y mm guide – Remove the bearing from the transmission side half-crankcase using the special tool. Inspecting the crankshaft components – Check the axial clearance on the connecting rod. Characteristic Standard thickness: Specific tooling Y Support base for checking crankshaft alignment – If the crankshaft – crankcase axial clearance is higher than the standard value and the crankshaft exhibits no irregularity, the problem is caused by wear or by a wrong machining on the engine crankcase.
Half shafts are classified into two categories, Cat 1 and Cat. Refer to the chart below. Inspecting the crankshaft alignment – Install the crankshaft on the support and measure the displacement at the 4 points shown in the figure.
The connecting rod cannot be replaced. To check the connecting rod small end diameter, see chapter “Thermal group and timing system”. Inspecting the crankcase halves – Before proceeding to check the crankcase halves, thoroughly clean all surfaces and oil ducts.
The jet clogging impairs the head lubrication and the timing mechanisms. A jet failure causes a decrease in the main bearing and connecting rod lubrication pressure. For the dimensional check, refer to the instructions about checking the axial clearance and the dimensions on the crankshaft ENG – Inspecting the crankshaft plain bearings – To obtain a good bushing lubrication it is necessary to have both an optimal lubricating pressure 4 bar and a good oil flow rate; the bushings must be correctly positioned so as not to obstruct the oil supply channels.
See the table below:. CM Quantity. A spare crankcase cannot be combined with a driving shaft with mixed categories. Spare shafts have half-shafts of the same category. Countershaft – Using a micrometer, measure the 2 bearings of the countershaft as shown in the figure. Refitting the crankshaft – Check that the oil pump and countershaft control gear are free from deformations or dents. Replace, if required. Apply the recommended product to the holes again.
Recommended products Loctite Medium-strength threadlock Medium Loctite threadlock – Repeat the same procedure for the 4 fastening screws. Refitting the crankcase halves – Remove the oil guard from the transmission side half-crankcase using a screwdriver. General characteristics The lubrication system is divided into two sections: – High pressure – Low pressure The high pressure section includes all components located on the engine crankcase whereas the low pressure section only refers to the thermal group.
The trochoidal pump is installed in the sump and is controlled by a pair of gears. To guarantee the integrity of the pump, a pre-filter is fitted. This is a screw-in type pre-filter and the relevant plug serves at the same time as an engine oil drain plug. The pump is controlled by means of a piston by-pass calibrated to 4 bar. This is located before the cartridge filter and both are installed on the flywheel cover, so that the seal of the filter is subject to the pressure of the circuit.
The by-pass located before the cartridge filter improves the operating conditions for the filter, particularly with cold oil. The filter is equipped with an anti-drain back valve and a pressure-relief valve; the latter intervenes when the filtering mass causes a pressure drop above 1 0.
These conditions naturally occur only with cold oil and at high engine revs or if the filter is clogged. The filtered oil is used to lubricate the water pump shaft and once at the engine crankcase, to lubricate the main bearings, the connecting rod head and the piston cooling nozzle, on the transmission-side bearing. The main bearing on the transmission side is fitted with an oil seal and the respective drain line. The supply line for the timing system comes from the flywheel-side bearing; the supply to the head is controlled by the respective spray jets in the engine crankcase.
The components of the timing system function with low-pressure oil lubrication. The camshaft bearings are installed directly on the aluminium of the head; the camshaft axial clearance is partially compensated by the oil supplied to the smaller diameter bearing. The camshaft supplies the lubricant to the rocking levers via the holes provided; these are installed in a position to ensure that the lubrication is maintained even after the scooter has stopped.
This is achieved when the camshaft reaches its most usual and likely position when the engine is shut off. The oil used to lubricate the head returns to the sump via the chain casing channel and therefore it also provides lubrication for the chain.
A one-way valve and a decantation chamber are used so that gases from the crankcase do not carry any oil. The one-way valve is a metal reed valve; the decantation chamber has a drainage hole.
A failure in these components implies oil getting into the line supplying air to the engine. Excessive oil vapours may result in clogged ducts on the throttle body.
In order to signal low oil pressure in the system, a pressure switch is used, located immediately after the oil filter outlet. The lubrication circuit does not include the countershaft. The countershaft is lubricated by the oil transported by the gears or by the centrifugal effect of the crankshaft The same applies to the piston or the pin, but in this case the cooling nozzle is particularly important.
Diagnosis guide 1 – Minimum oil pressure warning light on with hot engine. Check that the warning light turns off.
Specific tooling Y Oil pressure check gauge Y Oil pressure check fitting – Remove the dipstick with the oil filling cap and insert a cap fitted with the temperature probe supplied with the special tool. Insert the probe to feel contact with the crankcase bottom and pull back a few millimetres. It is recommended to respect the suggested number of kilometres covered. AHEAD go to 9 13 – Remove the flywheel cover and check the by-pass and the cover sealing gasket efficiency towards the case internal side, as described in the “Flywheel cover” chapter.
YES go to 14 NO go to 15 14 – Check whether there is an irregular clearance on the crankshaft: – axial clearance see the “Crankcase and crankshaft” chapter – radial clearance, especially in the direction of the cylinder axis – clearance according to the direction of rotation with the connecting rod in quadrature YES go to 16 NO go to 17 15 – Replace the faulty components “Flywheel cover” chapter.
Oil pressure check 1 – In case of oil leaks from the oil filter or from the flywheel cover coupling gasket, check the lubrication pressure. YES go to 5 NO go to 4 4 – Check the thermal group seals piston rings, valve guides and oil guards , see “Thermal group and Timing system” chapter.
Oil pump Removal – Remove the closing plate of the oil pump housing by loosening the 2 retaining screws with their washers. Refitting – Make sure the gasket is in the correct position.
Failure to observe the tightening torque may alter the coupling clearance of the rotors with the pump body. The electric fan system is powered by a remote control switch connected to the continuous power supply controlled by the electronic control unit of the injection system. The electronic control unit of the injection system controls the electric fan in relation to the measured engine temperature.
If prolonged running of the electric fan is noticed, check the following carefully before starting to check the electrical system:. To check the circuit, proceed as follows: 1 – Connect the diagnostic tester.
Check whether the control unit has detected any failures relating to the electric fan control circuit. Activate the electric fan diagnostic function. Check acoustically for rotation of the electric fan. Wait for the exit from the diagnostic tester.
The fan is rotating. YES go to 5 4- Test failed. The fan is not rotating. Check the connections to the electric fan, the function of the contacts of the remote control switch, the positive lines, the negative line and the motor of the electric fan. Check the continuity of the excitation coil. Do not connect the electronic control unit YES go to 11 11 – Check for positive battery voltage at pin 85 of the remote control switch connector.
If the fault continues, replace the electronic control unit. Make sure the entire exhaust system is sealed. Remove the intake cap on the exhaust pipe, connect the dissipater and the extension pipe.
Warm-up the engine and use an exhaust analyser to check the carburation of the idle speed, if necessary, restore the correct setting using a scooter Tester, see Adjusting idle carburation.
Specific tooling Y Kit for sampling gas from the exhaust manifold Y Exhaust fumes analyser Connect the gas collection kit at the muffler outlet being careful to ensure that it is sealed and stable by making sure the band is correctly fitted. Transfer the connection of the exhaust gas analyser from the manifold collection extension pipe to the extension pipe for the muffler outlet.
Use the exhaust collection kit for this connection. Close the extension outlet for collection from the manifold to make sure air does not infiltrate. Specific tooling Y Pre-service gas extraction set Check the exhaust emissions from the muffler after the catalytic converter with the engine warm and idling.
If the values measured are the same as those obtained with what was collected from the exhaust pipe, increase the catalytic converter temperature keeping then engine at average rpm and repeat the idle test. If the anomaly persists and the carburation setting was correct, replace the muffler with catalytic converter. The ignition system control unit is programmed to ensure optimal carburetion while riding along streets.
The idle carburetion needs to be adjusted to compensate for the production tolerances and engine settlement. This adjustment is done by modifying the injector opening time with the engine running at idle. To adjust, proceed as follows: 1 – Idle carburetion adjustment must be performed on an engine ready for precision adjustment. Characteristic Engine idle speed 50 rpm Check that the throttle body is not tampered. YES go to 2 2 – Preheat and check the zero setting of the exhaust fumes analyser.
Remove the exhaust manifold cover and connect the extension to the coupling clamp for the analyser pipe. YES go to 3 3 – Connect the diagnostic tester. Check whether there are any failures. YES go to 7 6 – Repair according to indications supplied. Activate the adjustment function. Middle class tractor tested for ride vibrations on gravel road and pasture.
Journal of Rakuno. Conclusions The whole body vibration varied from 0. Abstract A large number of small and marginal farmers of Orissa, India solely depend on betelvine cultivation for their family maintenance.
It is not only a local consumable commodity but also is exported to other states of India and abroad. In addition to the medicinal value, the betel leaves also have a good nutritional value. The essential oil of the betel leaves contains around 30 different compounds.
This essential oil has high market value, which is used in the production of perfume, medicine, talc, beverages, food additives and mouthwash. Moreover, the betel vine cultivation, being labour intensive, provides employment throughout the year for cultivation, harvesting, grading, packing and marketing operations. The movement of the betel leaves starts from the growers field to the consumer point through different ways.
After plucking, the leaves are washed, graded and then packed. The manner of packing varies with the processing operation to be followed. The green leaves are directly sold to the local pan vendors in local markets or to retailers with about 2. But a greater percentage of leaves are sold to the traders who further process it to export outside the state. Processors usually take about 10 to 15 days to condition the leaves to be exported outside the state.
These leaves reach the end users after about one month. The process not only fetches a high price because of consumer preference but also increases the storability of the leaves to a noticeable extent. The traditional post harvest practice of betel leaves as followed in the state of Orissa was studied. Introduction Betelvine, commonly known as Pan piper betle L. The betel leaf is cultivated either under forest eco-. Though betelvine was originated in Malaysia, at present it is an important cash crop in different parts of India.
In India, it is cultivated in about 55, hectares Jan. In Orissa betelvine is cultivated in an area of over 4, ha in the coastal districts of Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Puri, Khurda, Jagatsingpur, Kendrapara, Ganjam, Gajapati, Nayagarh and small pockets in the interior of Phulbani, Bolangir and Sambalpur districts.
Acknowledgement: The authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for providing financial assistance to undertake this research work.
Uses of Betel Leaves Betel leaves have been in human use since the time immemorial. In Vedas and Ayurbeda Sastra the use of Tambula has been mentioned. Betel leaf with a bit of betel nut has been used in Hindu rituals as a pious offering to God in many auspicious occasions and to elder people as a mark of respect during ceremonies. Chewing of pan has also been said to be popular among aryas and credited with many medicinal properties as indicated in Susruta Samhita.
Since then, betel leaves have occupied a magnificent place in daily life of Indian people. In addition to the above legendary effects, the betel leaf has also the following qualities. It has stimulator y effect on heart, brain and liver. It cleans the mouth and throat It helps in digestion by increasing salivation and neutralizes excess acid with lime. It is good for teeth as it contains chlorophyll.
It is useful in catarrhal, pulmonary infections and night blindness. Fresh leaf powder is used as lotion for patients suffering from small pox and enlarged glands. It is used with honey as a remedy for cough. Betel leaf extract may be used as an antioxidant for storage of oily products such as fish, fish oil, ghee etc.
Betel leaf may be used for the manufacture of essential oil, perfume and food additives. Cultivation of betel vine is labour intensive process with pre-harvest and post-harvest operations like earthing, tying, plucking, washing, sorting, counting, grading, depetoilation arranging, bundling, packaging and transportation, which provides employment to rural people throughout the year.
In Orissa the leaves are plucked at an interval of 7 to 15 days yielding, about 50 to 70 leaves per plant per year. About seven to eight million leaves are harvested annually from one hectare of betel vine garden.
These are washed thoroughly and packed in bamboo strip baskets or gunny cloth according to the prevailing tradition of the area. Packaging After sorting the leaves into different grades damaged, rotten the good quality leaves are separated, depetioled and bundled into 50 and and then packed in bamboo basTable 1 Area under betel leave cultivation in different states of India Name of the State West Bengal Assam Karnataka Tamil Nadu Orissa Andhra Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Maharastra Kerala Madhya Pradesh Others Area under cultivation, ha 18, 7, 6, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1, Methodology A survey was conducted in Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Paradeep, Khurda and Ganjam districts of the state of Orissa, India, to study the traditional harvest and post harvest practices of betel leaves followed by the farmers.
Large and small-scale processors were also contacted to study the existing practices of processing. Information regarding methods used for different unit operations and problems encountered were collected through questionnaire sheets to identify the area where postharvest approach is needed. Detailed f low charts for the post-harvest practices of betel leaves followed by the farmers in the state of Orissa are given in Fig.
Harvest and Post-Harvest Operations Harvesting The leaves that are sufficiently matured are plucked along with a portion of the petiole.
Leaves are plucked by hand without any aid. However, the maturity level is decided based on the consumer preferFig. Table 2 Export of betel leaves from India during Year of export Quantity, tonnes 1, Value, Thousand Rupees 8, 13, 3, 4, 6, As per the existing practice, the packaging is done in a very specific manner. Then the basket along with the leaves is covered by a layer of gunny cloth on its top and stitched properly.
When the leaves are not depetioled, the leaves are arranged so that the petioles project towards the periphery Fig. When the green betel leaves with petioles are exported to other states, ice packs ice. In one basket, 36 to 40 bundles of 50 leaves each amounting to about 1, to 2, leaves are accommodated. Sometimes bigger size baskets are used with more leaves.
During export to other states, the stitched baskets are transported either in single or with double layer of gunny cloth cover or two baskets stitched face to face with single layer of gunny cloth cover. Transportation of bundles is carried out by trucks within the state and to outside the state through railways. Processing As show n i n t he f lowcha r t s, the movement of the betel leaves starts from the growers’ field to the consumer point through different ways.
After plucking, the leaves are washed, graded and then packed Fig. The green leaves may be directly sold to the local pan vendors in local markets or to retailers. It takes about 2 to 5 days to reach to the consumers. But a greater percentage of leaves are sold to the traders who further process it to export to outside the state. Conditioning To preserve the delicacy of the betel leaves for many days, they are artificially ripened or bleached before transportation or storage.
In the traditional method of conditioning, a small chamber called as Bhatti made up of brick and mud is used. The chambers are of various sizes ranging from 1.
The vats are usually constructed inside the house. Walls of the vat are constructed with brickwork of mud plaster some times accompanied by a layer of cow dung. The floor is also either cemented or covered by an even layer of clay and dung to make it air proof. An insulated door of 0. The door is about 15 cm larger on each side by the dimension of the door opening.
Enough care is taken to make it air Fig. Inside the vat at a height of 30 cm from the ground level, bamboo racks are provided at an interval of 45 cm to 60 cm between the racks on all sides of the chamber excluding the entrance side. After plucking from the plant, the betel leaves are sorted for damaged and diseased leaves that are discarded. After removing the petioles, the leaves are bundled into 50 to and are arranged in the baskets of uniform size.
The inner side of the baskets is lined with Sal leaves or a layer of wet gunny cloth. Then leaves are arranged in the specific way as described earlier to have a cavity at the centre for proper ventilation to remove the heat of respiration.
The bundles are placed in such a manner that the front and backside of the leaves are exposed alternately. Then the baskets are covered with moist gunny cloth and arranged in the racks in order.
At a given time, about 10 to 40 baskets each containing about 2, leaves can be kept in the chamber. The number varies according to the size of the chamber. In one corner of the room a small chullah is kept in which wood charcoal is burnt during conditioning.
About 2 to 3 kg of charcoal are required for one charging. After firing the movable chullah is kept at a corner away from the racks to avoid direct heat. The door is also properly covered to avoid any leakage of heat from the chamber.
After 10 to 12 hours of charging the baskets are taken out for cooling. The cooling period varies between 36 to 72 hours Fig. During the cooling period the leaves are sorted Fig. Before subjecting the baskets to a second phase of charging, the damaged or rotten leaves are discarded. Then the process is repeated until all the leaves are conditioned, i. After the second phase the amount of fuel is gradually reduced.
The requirement of fuel for obtaining the desired temperature range, as well as to achieve the final conditioned stage of betel leaves, is mainly decided through personal experience as no such rule or scientific formula exists.
Temperature requirement varies with the variety and quality of leaves. During the summer season, the leaves are fully conditioned with 2 to 3 chargings. But in winter, sometimes, it requires even a 5th charging. The conditioned leaves are finally packed in bamboo baskets as described earlier to be exported to other cities. In a chamber of 2. This method of processing of betel leaves not only enhances the taste for a particular group but also extends the storage life of the leaves about 7 to 10 days in summer and 15 to 20 days in winter.
The cost of such conditioned leaves is much higher than the general unprocessed ones. The intensity and quality of conditioning is dependent Fig. Limitations of the Traditional Processing System Labour consuming Time consuming Tedious Does not work during rainy season Marketing Around 4, hectares of land is in use for betel vine cultivation in Orissa.
Each hactare yields an average of seven to eight million leaves per year. Farmers sale their leaves with an average price of Rs. They collect leaves from different farmers and export to other parts of the country after conditioning in baskets of about 2, leaves.
On an average, 2, to 3, baskets are exported out of the state daily Fig. Standardisation of different parameters of each of these processes is essential in order to reduce the losses. Following are the thrust areas on which future research may be carried out.
Development of process technology and low cost equipment for extraction of essential oil from betel leaves and petioles. Development of process technology for manufacture of mouth fresheners, perfume, talc, food additives and beverages etc. Study on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of betel leaf extract.
Scientific packaging and storage of betel leaves for shelf life enhancement. It will also increase export by improving the quality as well as storability. Dey, S. Das Mukherjee, and A. Phytochemistry of betel leaves and some aspects of storage, importance of betelvine cultivation, Lucknow, India, Jana, B.
Improved technology for betel leave cultivation. A note presented in the workshop on betel leave marketing, June , Maiti, Satyabrata. Mohanty, B. Study on rapid multiplication of betel vine cutting and prolonging storage life of betel leaf. Rayaguru K, U.
Pal, M. Khan, G. Sahoo, M. Panda, and N. Post Harvest Profile of Betel Leaves. Technical Bulletin. Sankar, C.
Sridevi, and M. The Andhra Agrilic. Conclusion Cultivation of this potential crop is handicapped by various constraints. No official data is available on acreage, yield and processing methods. No systematic efforts have been made so far to improve the processing, packaging and marketing of this potential cash crop though a large number of villagers exclusively engage themselves traditionally in this cultivation.
The business is mostly carried out based on personal experience. Scientific study on the optimisation of all the above said parameters will no doubt lead to the minimisation of losses.
If the. Future Research Needs on Post Harvest Technology of Betel Leaves During the rainy season, the leaf production is so high that, the leaves remain unsold or sold at a very low price. Therefore, manufacturing of essential oil, pan masala, talc, me-. Abstract Effect of approach angle, gang width, moisture content and speed on specific draft and weeding efficiency were studied in the laboratory and field.
Specific draft was lower and weeding efficiency was h ig he r for 70 approa ch a ngle sweep. The relationship between approach angle and specific draft was a polynomial and that of speed and specific draft was linear. As the moisture content increased the specific draft increased. The effect of approach angle and gang width on weeding efficiency was also significant. Trend of specific draft and weeding efficiency in the laboratory and field was similar.
From the field test, it was observed that mm gang width may be used in mm row spaced crop as it gave reasonable weeding and field efficiency with comparatively less plant damage 1. Higher weed infestation is a serious problem for growing soybean. High temperature accompanied by high humidity prevailing during the early monsoon facilitates weeds growth in the state. It is estimated that during monsoon about 5 million-hectare are left fallow in the state due to the weed problem.
A lot of work has been done to evaluate the performance of various designs of inter-cultivation tools Tewari, ; Biswas, ; Sial, ; Dransfield, Girma reported that in the ploughing process, most of the energy dissipation is a function of speed. Speed also plays an important role for dynamic stability and draft control. Some scientific approaches for design of soil working components are available Bernacki, ; Goryachkin, Power operated inter-cultivation machines are available but their expediency in narrow row spaced crop is limited.
Therefore, geometry of soil working tools suitable for narrow row spacing crop is required. Various types of weeders and weeding mechanism are being used according to cultural practices and climatic conditions. Different design parameters such as rake angle, approach angle, tilt angle, lift angle, blade width, blade thickness, sharpness angle, speed, depth of operation and geometry were considered as design parameters by various researchers.
It was found from the review of literature that shape, size, geometry and operating parameters affect the performance of the inter-cultivation tools. It has also been observed that the sweep is the most suitable Sial, ; Tewari, ; Biswas, soil working tool under black soil conditions. Bernacki recommended that apex angle should be in the range of 60 to Previous studies on approach angle are limited. It was decided to test the weeder with a different geometry of sweep that had a small width but in gang.
Therefore, the objective of the present study was to design a sweep Fig. Materials and Methods Soil of the region is characterized as black soil that contains predominantly montmorillonite clay.
The soil has good moisture holding capacity and it swells considerably with moisture content. When dry, the soil shrinks and forms cracks. Soil used in the bin has clay texture with Four different shapes of sweep were tested in laboratory and field for determination of optimum design parameters of sweep under vertisols. Variables: a Independent Variables i. Specific Draft ii. Weeding Efficiency The range of gang width was taken from mm to mm as it was most suitable for the crop sown at mm row spacing.
The approach angle was from 60 to 90 based on theoretical considerations Barnacki et al. Similarly, the range of speed was from 0. The dependent variables taken were unit draft and weeding efficiency. Experimental Procedure The laboratory soil tray was filled with the soil to a depth of mm.
Water was sprinkled on the soil to maintained desired soil moisture, thoroughly hand mixed, leveled and compacted. A hand held cone penetrometer was used to measure the.
The penetrometer had a cone angle of 30 and base area of Readings were taken up to a depth of mm. The value of cone penetration resistance was reasonably uniform and ranged from 0.
The statistical layout was splitsplit plot design with the approach angle in the sub-sub plot to have the maximum precision with the approach angle. The experiment was conducted in the soil bin shown in Fig. Three sweeps of 60 approach angle were mounted on the tool holder by keeping the gang width mm. The transducer purposely designed for the present study was fitted to the tool holder with the help of a flange.
A digital strain indicator was connected to transducer. The bridge circuits of the transducer were connected to a strain indicator through a switching and balancing unit.
The draft exerted on the tool was displayed in terms of strain that was calibrated in terms of draft. In this way, the total draft was measured and was divided by gang width to Fig. One hundred pearled head pins were randomly inserted in to the soil on the path of the tool in the mm band to represent the weeds in the row. Depth of operation was maintained at 50 mm.
The trolley was pulled at 0. The horizontal force was recorded with the help of the strain indicator. The undisturbed pins were counted. Soil was brought to its original condition and speed was changed to 0. The horizontal force and undisturbed pins were recorded. The procedure was repeated for speeds of 0. After completion of tests, at all four speeds, the gang width was changed to , and mm, respectively and the same procedures adopted as for mm.
Field Testing The field test was conducted on a soybean crop sown at mm row spacing Fig. The operating speed of the weeder was maintained at a rate to prevent fatigue and crop damage. Three gangs at a time were used to cover three inter row spacing so as. The weeder was tested at four gang widths to obtain the optimum gang width for maximum weeding efficiency and least crop damage. The test was conducted to cover m 2 area and was replicated three times.
RNAM test code and test procedure was followed for field testing. It is evident from the Fig. Similar trends were also observed for. As the moisture content increased the unit draft increased. A second degree polynomial relationship exists between approach angle and specific draft. From Table 1, the calculated F. It is therefore, concluded that the effect of approach angle and gang width on specific draft is highly significant. The lowest draft at 70 approach angle could be explained by physico mechanical properties of soils, trihedral wedge theory, theory of rupture and cutting theory given by Goryachkin and Sineokov Change in approach angle causes change in flow pattern of the soil along the tool surface.
The change in f low pattern causes significant variations in draft Girma, The forces acting on the implements are a force causing forward travel, P, acting at an angle to the horizontal b the weight, G, of the implement c the resistance of the working surface d the reactions of the supporting surface, R, which includes normal and tangential frictional forces.
The frictional forces can be eliminated by changing the inclination of the working and supporting planes by the angle of friction. The resultant of all above forces must lie in the same line. For minimum draft, the force causing forward travel ‘P’ must make an angle with horizontal equal to the angle of friction.
The draft in the present study was lowest for 70 approach angle, which might be due to fulfilling of this condition. Other researchers Biswas, ; Tewari, have also reported similar findings. It is evident from Fig. The similar trends were also observed for 0. A polynomial relationship between approach angle and weeding efficiency exists.
It is also seen from Fig. Higher weeding efficiency at higher gang width may be due to more area coverage in between the rows. It is seen from Table 1 that the F ratio for approach angle and gang width are higher than the tabulated F ratio. It is therefore, concluded that the effect of approach angle and gang width on weeding efficiency is highly significant.
The specific draft is lower and weeding efficiency is higher for 70 approach angle sweep. Therefore, sweep of 70 approach angle is considered to be optimum. In case of gang width, the specific draft was lower for mm gang width but the weeding efficiency was higher for mm gang width. Considering the objective of the tool, mm gang width is considered to be optimum subject to the crop row spacing.
Optimization of Operating Speed S and Moisture Content M The optimized tool, which is 70 approach angle sweep, was tested at four levels of operating speed namely 0. The graphical presentations of the relationship are shown in Fig. The statistical analysis to test the significance of effect of speed S and its interaction effect on dependent variables, i.
It is observed from Fig. The weeding efficiency decreases as the speed increases and is higher at 0. It is, therefore, concluded that the effect of speed and moisture content on specific draft is highly significant. Observations made above indicate that the unit draft is lower at 0. The increase of draft with speed might be explained by change in zone of influence and strain hardening Sial, Also, soil strength became larger as the rate of shear increased Rowe, When the tilling tool is operated at higher speed, instead of inverting and throwing soil, the plough carried soil along with it, which results in bulking and heaving of soil on the implement base.
Increase in specific draft requirement with increase in speed has been reported by Shrestha Up to a particular limit, the increase of moisture increased the friction coefficient. The increase in the friction coefficient with moisture increase was explained by the growth in the forces of molecular attraction of the soil particle to the steel surface. With increase in unit pressure on the surface of contact, adhesiveness increased, which depended on the furrow slice weight. Therefore, increase in frictional coefficient and adhesiveness might be the reason for higher specific draft at higher soil moisture.
Field Testing The average specific draft required for the weeder was 0. The weeder worked in the field satisfactorily with occasional clogging and scouring. The percentage crop damage was 0. The crop damage was lower for mm gang width because of more space available within the row. Similarly the field capacity was 0. Download the list of all vehicles available for sponsorship.
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GetFeed of Trip now includes stop point woohoo! GO8: Added preliminary support for GO8 devices requires update of. Fix, API. DiagnosticSearch: Added DiagnosticType property to search by the type of diagnostic. Ex, only GoFault diagnostics. This exception can be thrown if a user makes a request while their ChangePassword flag is true. The user must change their password before they are able to successfully make further requests.
If you are using the. Id refactoring – The ID object has been refactored in the. See this forum post for details. The maximum value of this property is When it is less or equal to , it indicates the number of seconds of the delay. When it is greater than , the delay increases 30 seconds for every increment of one of this property.
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Authentication rate limiting being phased in. See this Blog Post for more details. TrailerSearch – Added property groups. Net nuget package to ensure compatibility.
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See this announcement for more information. If the database name exists, CreateDatabase throws a RegistrationException. PropertySelector Added the optional PropertySelector parameter that is used with the Get and GetFeed methods to include or exclude specific properties for entity types requested.
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