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Assessment of medical students using the traditional oral viva system has been marred by being highly subjective, non-structured, and biased.

The use of the objective structured clinical examination OSCE would circumvent these disadvantages. The OSCE is, however, costly and time-consuming particularly if used for assessment of large numbers of students.

The need for another form of examination that enjoys the advantages of the OSCE while avoiding its disadvantages in the face of limited resources has been the inspiration behind this innovative approach. We used a slide video projection to assess the surgical knowledge, problem solving and management abilities of final year medical students at Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Students completed evaluation forms at the end of the examination. The examination time was 2 hours using video projection compared to the 6 hours that it used to take a class of students to complete a classical OSCE.

It is much less time- consuming than traditional OSCE. From , the Royal College of Radiologists will be adopting this format for written examinations. This article describes the background of this decision and the evidence behind it.

There are numerous benefits to examiners and candidates alike from adopting this format. Using examples, the usual structure of the format of this type of questions is explained, how they are written, and tips provided on how to prepare for and answer them. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker.

To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains multiple choice questions MCQ. The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average GPA.

Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. Mean student GPA was 3. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores. Student satisfaction was measured using a bespoke questionnaire.

In conclusion, we have created a realistic radiology imaging exercise with readily available software. The peer review scores are valid in that to a limited degree The difference in peer review scores received by students grouped according to their level of course performance high vs.

Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture’s effect on educational outcomes.

Methods A cohort of Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive minute lectures on two clinical topics.

One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, question multiple-choice questionnaires MCQ assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8—12 weeks later.

Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures.

Lecturer’s opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters p Conclusion In this setting, EVS technology used in large group lectures did not offer significant advantages over the more traditional lecture format.

Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychiatry clerkship curriculum which was designed to improve the knowledge and skills of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences TUMS, Iran. Methods:This quasi-experimental study was conducted in two consecutive semesters from February to January In total, medical students participated in the study.

In the next semester, we constructed and applied a new curriculum based on the SPICES model student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based, elective and systematic. Baseline data and test performance for each student were analyzed. With respect to MCQ score, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Conclusions:The results suggest that the revised curriculum is more effective than the traditional one in improving the required clinical skills in medical students during their psychiatry clerkship.

Factors influencing medical students’ self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study. Assessment of one’s academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination.

Associations between accuracy of score prediction pre and post assessment , and students’ gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined.

Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities. Summative evaluation for large classes of first- and second-year undergraduate courses often involves the use of multiple choice question MCQ exams in order to provide timely feedback.

Several versions of those exams are often prepared via computer-based question scrambling in an effort to deter cheating. An important parameter to consider when…. A traditional male gender role reflects an affirmation of masculine identity associated with such qualities as success and self-reliance. This gender role is examined from a diversity perspective in counseling, because it may affect many men’s help-seeking attitudes and behaviors.

Suggestions from the literature are reviewed from the standpoint of…. Evaluation of adding item-response theory analysis for evaluation of the European Board of Ophthalmology Diploma examination. These analysis techniques are used to monitor whether the introduction of negative marking for incorrect answers since EBOD has a positive influence on the statistical performance of EBOD as a whole and its individual test items in particular. Item-response theory analysis demonstrated that item performance parameters should not be evaluated individually, but should be related to one another.

Although many statistical performance parameters are available to evaluate individual items, our study demonstrates that the overall reliability assessment remains the only crucial parameter to be evaluated allowing comparison.

While individual item performance analysis is worthwhile to undertake as secondary analysis, drawing final conclusions seems to be more difficult. Performance parameters need to be related, as shown by IRT analysis.

Therefore, IRT analysis has. The effectiveness of a mobile application for the development of palpation and ultrasound imaging skills to supplement the traditional learning of physiotherapy students. Mobile learning m-learning has becoming very popular in education due to the rapidly advancing technology in our society.

The potentials of the mobile applications should be used to enhance the education process. Few mobile applications have been designed to complement the study of physical therapy skills for physiotherapy students. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile application, as a supplement to traditional learning, is useful for physiotherapy students in the acquisition of palpation and ultrasound skills in the shoulder area.

Forty-nine students participated in this single-blinded, randomized controlled study. They were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental, with free access to the mobile application; and control, with access to traditional learning materials on the topic.

Then, we also assessed the time taken to get a reliable ultrasound image and to localize a specific shoulder structure by palpation. Full Text Available Clothing is a unique dressing style of a community, a period or a profession. In clothing there is social status and difference principle rather than fashion. In this context, the society created a clothing style in line with its own customs, traditions and social structure.

One of the features separating societies from each other and indicating their cultural and social classes is the clothing style. As it is known, traditional Turkish clothes reflecting the characteristics of Turkish society is our most beautiful heritage from past to present. From this heritage there are several examples of women’s clothes c arried to present. When these examples are examined , it is possible to see the taste, the way of understanding art, joy and the lifestyle of the history.

These garments are also the documents outlining the taste and grace of Turkish people. In the present study, traditional Kastamonu women’s clothing, that has an important place in traditional cultural clothes of Anatolia, is investigated.

The method of the present research is primarily defined as the examination of the written sources. The study is complet ed with the observations and examinations made in Kastamonu. Introduction The purpose of the study is to evaluate delivery method and breastfeeding initiation in women enrolled in group prenatal care CenteringPregnancy and in traditional prenatal care.

Methods Data were obtained from medical records of a hospital-based midwifery practice in south central Connecticut that offered both types of prenatal care programs. Medical information from women enrolled in this practice was included in the analysis. Out of the , 80 were enrolled in group prenatal care. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and previous and current obstetrical information from medical records formed the basis of comparison. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out.

Results Women in Centering had fewer planned cesarean sections 1. However, Centering women were found to have a higher portion of unplanned cesarean sections Both the unadjusted and the adjusted odds ratios of having a cesarean planned delivery were lower in the group care.

Women in Centering had 2. Discussion CenteringPregnancy can have positive impact for the woman and baby. This program implementation saw lower rates of elective cesarean sections and increased breastfeeding compared to women in traditional care.

Examining traditional display advertisement and advertorial according to advertisement and advertised product perception based on factor analysis. Firms are trying to reach consumers with different advertisement applications for purpose of to give information, remind and convince customers. Traditional advertisement and advertorial which aim to increase reliability and convince of people found themselves with different publishing channels. This research examines the dimensions of two different types of advertisement and the differences between them.

Both for exploring active elements and essentials of marketing and an advertising; impor Calibrating the Medical Council of Canada’s Qualifying Examination Part I using an integrated item response theory framework: a comparison of models and designs. Our data consisted of test results from 8, first time applicants to MCCQEI in spring and fall and test administrations.

The data set contained several thousand multiple choice items and several hundred CDM cases. The 2-PL model had identical numbers of items with chi-square values at or below a Type I error rate of 0. In all 3 polytomous models, whether the MCQs were either anchored or concurrently run with the CDM cases, results suggest very poor fit. All IRT abilities estimated from dichotomous calibration designs correlated very highly with each other.

IRT-based pass-fail rates were extremely similar, not only across calibration designs and methods, but also with regard to the actual reported decision to candidates. The largest difference noted in pass rates was 4. Simpler calibration designs with dichotomized items should be implemented. The dichotomous calibrations provided better fit of the item response matrix than more complex, polytomous calibrations. The impact of gender ideologies on men’s and women’s desire for a traditional or non- traditional partner.

The studies both demonstrate a link between benevolent sexism and preference for a traditional partner. Documenting indigenous knowledge about Africa’s traditional This article examines the global debates about indigenous knowledge and Africa’s traditional medicine.

It explores whether it is possible to document all the elements of indigenous knowledge about Africa’s traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of diverse forms of sickness.

Certain types of Africa’s traditional Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters p lecturer-students interactions were increased in the EVS lecture for one lecturer and reduced for the other.

Both lecturers felt that the EVS lectures were difficult to prepare, that they were able to keep to time in the traditional lectures, that the educational value of both lecture styles was similar, and that they were neutral-to-slightly favourably disposed.

Methods: Our data consisted of test results from 8, first time applicants to MCCQEI in spring and fall and test administrations. Results: The 2-PL model had identical numbers of items with chi-square values at or below a Type I error rate of 0.

Conclusion: Simpler calibration designs with dichotomized items should be implemented. Formative assessment: a student perspective. An educator’s view would be that formative assessment has an important role in the learning process. This study was carried out to obtain a student perspective of the place of formative assessment in the curriculum.

Final-year medical students at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital took part in four teaching sessions, each structured to integrate teaching with assessment. Teaching sessions were conducted on the subject areas of traumatology, the ‘acute abdomen’, arterial disorders and cancer. Eighty-nine per cent of respondents felt that formative assessment should be incorporated into the teaching process.

The SSA assessment was regarded as the preferred modality to reinforce previous teaching and test problem-solving skills. The MCQ was the least favoured assessment method. Formative assessment is a potentially powerful method to direct learning behaviour. Students should have input into the methods used. Digital assessments — challenges, choices and pitfalls.

We have developed our own systems The mediating role of metacognitive variables in the relationship between Thought-Action Fusion and obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. However, a more detailed study of the involvement of these variables is needed. This article seeks to assess the possible mediating role of the factors of the Metacognitions Questionnaire MCQ in the relationship between TAF and OCD symptoms both in clinical and non-clinical samples.

A cross-sectional design was used in which participants, divided into three groups two clinical and one non-clinical, completed the questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. The mediational findings generally supported the proposed mediation model. However, it was observed that this mediation approached significance, with considerable effect sizes.

It is generally concluded that certain beliefs, such as TAF, can evolve toward more complex metacognitive beliefs, which ultimately lead to the development of OCD symptoms. Physicians receive little training on proper multiple-choice question MCQ writing methods. Well-constructed MCQs follow rules, which ensure that a question tests what it is intended to test.

Questions that break these are described as “flawed. We assessed unedited MCQs from a question bank for our senior medical student radiology elective: an equal number of questions 50 were written by faculty with previous training in MCQ writing, other faculty, residents, and medical students.

Questions were scored independently by two readers for the presence of 11 distinct flaws described in the literature. Questions written by faculty with MCQ writing training had significantly fewer errors: mean 0. Published by Elsevier Inc. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups.

Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed.

Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means.

Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community.

Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity.

URN: urn:nbn:defqs Modernism and tradition and the traditions of modernism. Full Text Available Conventionally, the story of musical modernism has been told in terms of a catastrophic break with the tonal past and the search for entirely new techniques and modes of expression suitable to a new age.

The resulting notion of a single, linear, modernist mainstream predicated on the basis of a Schoenbergian model of musical progress has served to conceal a more subtle relationship between past and present. Increasingly, it is being recognized that there exist many modernisms and their various identities are forged from a continual renegotiation between past and present, between tradition s and the avant-garde.

This is especially relevant when attempting to discuss the reception of modernism outside central Europe, where the adoption of Germanic avant-garde attitudes was often interpreted as being “unpatriotic”.

CT colonography training for radiographers – a formal evaluation. Haycock, A. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a new intensive ‘hands-on’ course designed to train small teams of radiographers in computed tomography colonography CTC technique and initial interpretation for patient triage.

Materials and methods: The course comprised small-group lectures, active participation in the daily CTC service with practical technique and image interpretation training by experienced radiologists and radiographers. Paired t-tests were used to investigate change in performance for MCQ score and interpretation accuracy. Results: Thirteen courses with 49 participants were evaluated over 2 years.

Conclusion: Structured training in CTC can significantly improve knowledge and interpretation skills of radiographers, while assessing safe procedural performance.

Implementation of similar programmes nationally may help reduce performance gaps between centres. Development of knowledge tests for multi-disciplinary emergency training.

Methods: A multi-disciplinary working committee with 12members representing six professional healthcare groups andanother 28 participants were involved. Recurrent revisions The MCQ test wasable to distinguish between levels of competence, and good con-struct validity was indicated by a significant difference in the meanscore between consultants and first-year trainees, as well as betweenfirst Disapproval of homosexuality is the cause of tremendous suffering among sexual minorities.

No research has examined determinants of Vietnamese attitudes toward homosexuality. This article examined predictors of such attitudes among Vietnamese youth.

Sexual conservativeness predicted intolerance in both men and women; value of fidelity also predicted intolerance in women. Self-esteem was nonsignificant for women; for men, positive self-perception was nonsignificant, but negative self-perception predicted tolerance.

College education, urban residence, and Internet use predicted tolerance, with gender differences. Findings about traditional sexual values, college education, urban residence, and the gender difference in whether self-esteem matters are consistent with the literature.

The positive association of Internet use with tolerance was first theorized and tested in this study. African Tradition , Philosophy, and Modernization Ikuenobe I examine Wiredu’s views that 1 ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that 2 this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs.

The ability to Hypothesis-driven physical examination curriculum. Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres. Alternatives like hypothesis-driven physical examination HDPE may promote students’ understanding of the contribution of physical examination to diagnostic reasoning.

We sought to determine whether first-year medical students can effectively learn to perform a physical examination using an HDPE approach, and then tailor the examination to specific clinical scenarios.

Medical students traditionally learn physical examination skills as a rote list of manoeuvres CONTEXT: First-year medical students at the University of Minnesota were taught both traditional and HDPE approaches during a required week clinical skills course in their first semester.

The end-of-course evaluation assessed HDPE skills: students were assigned one of two cardiopulmonary cases. Each case included two diagnostic hypotheses. During an interaction with a standardised patient, students were asked to select physical examination manoeuvres in order to make a final diagnosis. Items were weighted and selection order was recorded.

First-year students with minimal pathophysiology performed well. All students selected the correct diagnosis. Importantly, students varied the order when selecting examination manoeuvres depending on the diagnoses under consideration, demonstrating early clinical decision-making skills. An early introduction to HDPE may reinforce physical examination skills for hypothesis generation and testing, and can foster early clinical decision-making skills. This has important implications for further research in physical examination instruction.

First year undergraduate courses in higher education tend to be designed based on assumptions of students’ prior knowledge. Almost undergraduates at five UK universities, studying biological sciences, were given an MCQ test in their first week at university, based on biology A-level pre-university examination core criteria. The overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

Cyberbullying appears to be on the rise among adolescents due in part to increased access to electronic devices and less online supervision. Less is known about how cyberbullying differs from traditional bullying which occurs in person and the extent to which these two forms overlap.

Our first aim was to examine the overlap of traditional bullying relational, verbal, and physical with cyberbullying. The second aim examined student- and school-level correlates of cyber victimization as compared to traditional victims. The final aim explored details of the cyberbullying experience e. Data came from 28, adolescents grades, attending 58 high schools.

The largest proportion Additional analyses examined detailed characteristics of the cyberbullying experiences, indicating a relatively high level of overlap between cyber and traditional bullying. Implications for preventive interventions targeting youth involved with cyberbullying and its overlap with other forms of bullying are discussed.

Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions. This article outlines some of the major Eastern sexual and spiritual traditions primarily Hinduism, Taoism and Tantrism , and discusses their relevance for the contemporary Western world. The article begins by examining the sources of Eastern sexual traditions , before and after the “Axial” period, the turning point at which male consciousness and power gained ascendancy over the female principle.

Although a phallocentric view of the world came to dominate the East, Eastern cultures — unlike the West — maintained a respect for nature. According to this view, health and spirituality are gained only when humanity respects its place in the cosmos and lives in harmony with nature. The article then examines the sexual traditions of Hinduism, in which sexual asceticism not only coexisted but also complimented the celebration of sexual desire and pleasure. The article then discusses the Taoist traditions , which, among other things, stressed the importance of female sexual satisfaction.

Taoism argued that men cannot experience true sexual ecstasy unless they develop the ability to control their ejaculation. The Tantric sexual tradition , the article explains, maintained that ultimate sexual pleasure would enable one to experience the true nature of reality. Finally, the article considers the relevance of these Eastern philosophies to the Western sexual tradition , which has tended to view sexuality as antagonistic to spiritual liberation.

An analysis of application of health informatics in Traditional Medicine: A review of four Traditional Medicine Systems. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The search term used was ” Traditional Medicine”, “informatics”, “informatics infrastructure”, ” traditional Chinese medicine”, “Ayurveda”, ” traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine”, and ” traditional malay medicine”.

A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms.

Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient.

Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine.

Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its. Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Relations between childhood traumatic experiences, dissociation, and cognitive models in obsessive compulsive disorder.

Previous studies have indicated that obsessive compulsive disorder OCD is associated with childhood traumatic experiences and higher levels of dissociation. Dissociative tendency may arise when individual attempt to incorporate adverse experiences into cognitive schema. We investigated the possible links among childhood trauma, dissociation, and cognitive processes. These results suggest that in spite of pathological connotation of dissociative experiences, dissociation may primarily constitute a cognitive trait which is strongly associated with cognitive processes.

The effectiveness of using non- traditional teaching methods to prepare student health care professionals for the delivery of mental state examination : a systematic review. With the evolution of education, there has been a shift from the use of traditional teaching methods, such as didactic or rote teaching, towards non- traditional teaching methods, such as viewing of role plays, simulation, live interviews and the use of virtual environments. Mental state examination is an essential competency for all student healthcare professionals.

If mental state examination is not taught in the most effective manner so learners can comprehend its concepts and interpret the findings correctly, it could lead to serious repercussions and subsequently impact on clinical care provided for patients with mental health conditions, such as incorrect assessment of suicidal ideation. However, the methods for teaching mental state examination vary widely between countries, academic institutions and clinical settings.

This systematic review aimed to identify and synthesize the best available evidence of effective teaching methods used to prepare student health care professionals for the delivery of mental state examination.

This review considered evidence from primary quantitative studies which address the effectiveness of a chosen method used for the teaching of mental state examination published in English, including studies that measure learner outcomes, i.

A three-step search strategy was undertaken in this review to search for articles published in English from the inception of the database to December Thirdly, reference lists of the articles identified in the second stage were searched for other relevant studies.

Studies selected were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological. To date, relatively little is known about differences between perpetrators and victims of cyber and traditional forms of aggression. Hence, this study investigated differences among traditional and cyber aggressors and victims on psychosocial characteristics typically examined in research on traditional aggression and victimization, specifically….

Effectiveness of an audience response system on orthodontic knowledge retention of undergraduate dental students–a randomised control trial. To determine the effect of an audience response system ARS on knowledge retention of dental students and to gauge student perceptions of using the ARS. Randomised control study. School of Dentistry, Cardiff University. Seventy four second-year dental students were stratified by gender and randomised anonymously to one of two groups.

One group received a lecture on orthodontic terminology and diagnosis in a traditional didactic format and the other received the same lecture integrated with ARS slides. Students completed an assessment of multiple-choice questions MCQs scored out of 20, before and immediately after the lecture.

Students were also asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire on their perceptions of ARS. Students reported that the ARS was easy to use, helped them engage with the lecture and encouraged them to work harder. The ARS did not lead to a significant increase in short-term orthodontic knowledge recall of students compared with didactic teaching.

However, the use of ARS within orthodontic teaching could make lectures more interactive and engaging. Autobiographical remembering and individual differences in emotional intelligence. The relationship between individual differences in Emotional Intelligence EI and self-reported arousal from remembering an autobiographical emotional or neutral event was examined. Participants were then asked to recall personal episodes from autobiographical memory, and then completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire MCQ.

However, differences in ratings between the two groups were not observed for emotionally positive episodes. These results suggest that high EI is related to more effective use of weak retrieval cues when recalling neutral autobiographical memories.

Current and future prospects of integrating traditional and alternative Tanzania Health Research Bulletin 7, September Abstract: Traditional medicine and medicinal plants, in general, continue to be a powerful Traditional medicine in late pregnancy and labour: perceptions of In South Africa most black women use antenatal care services and deliver in clinics, and a considerable number complement this use of formal health services with traditional medicine.

This study reported here examined the knowledge, beliefs and practical experiences of pregnant women, traditional healers and midwives This study examined the patterns or mechanism for conflict resolution in traditional African societies with particular reference to Yoruba and Igbo societies in Nigeria and Pondo tribe in South Africa.

The paper notes that conflict resolution in traditional African societies provides opportunity to interact with the parties To determine whether sonographic versions of physical examination techniques can accurately identify splenomegaly, Castell’s method Ann Intern Med ; , the sonographic Castell’s method, spleen tip palpation, and the sonographic spleen tip technique were compared with reference measurements.

Two clinicians trained in bedside sonography patients recruited from an urban hematology clinic. Each patient was examined for splenomegaly using conventional percussion and palpation techniques Castell’s method and spleen tip palpation, respectively , as well as the sonographic versions of these maneuvers sonographic Castell’s method and sonographic spleen tip technique.

Results were compared with a reference standard based on professional sonographer measurements. The sonographic Castell’s method had greater sensitivity Sonographic versions of traditional physical examination maneuvers have greater diagnostic accuracy than the physical examination maneuvers from which they are derived but may take longer to perform.

We recommend a combination of traditional physical examination and sonographic techniques when evaluating for splenomegaly at the bedside. Enhancement of medical student performance through narrative reflective practice: a pilot project.

All preceptors followed the same one-hour clinical teaching format, except for the single preceptor who incorporated 2 weeks of NRP in the usual clinical teaching of 16 students. The group receiving NRP training scored 4.

This promising pilot project needs to be confirmed using several trained preceptors and trainees at different levels of their clinical experience. Intrarater and interrater reliability of pulse examination in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine.

In Ayurveda, pulse examination nadipariksha is an important tool to assess the status of three doshas : vata , pitta , and kapha. Long historical use has been seen as a documentation of its efficacy; however, there is a lack of a quantitative measure of the reliability of the pulse examination method. The objective of this study was to test the intrarater and interrater reliability of pulse examination in Ayurveda.

Fifteen registered Ayurvedic doctors with years of experience examined the pulse of 20 healthy volunteers twice, for a total of examinations. The examinations were performed blind and in a random order. Only the current status of dosha- specific methods of pulse examination were considered.

Following this, we tested whether proportions of ratings were equal between doctors. According to the Landis and Koch scale, the level of reliability ranged from poor to moderate. It was observed that the doctors more frequently diagnosed a combination of two doshas than a single dosha. Experience and proper training have important roles in pulse examination. Autopsy: Traditional Jewish laws and customs “Halacha”.

There can be flexibility as to the extent that such forensic studies can and should be performed. The final consent and interpretation of the rules, laws, traditions , and customs will rest with the courts and local rabbinic authority. Development of gender attitude traditionality across middle childhood and adolescence. The development of gender attitudes in youth firstborn and secondborn siblings in European American families was examined using data collected on seven occasions across 9 years.

Pooling across siblings and using multilevel modeling, we examined gender attitude development from ages 7 to Consistent with an ecological perspective, the combined effects of individual i. Although most youth declined in traditionality , the attitudes of firstborn boys with brothers and traditional parents became more traditional over time.

No one longitudinal pattern captured the development of gender attitudes; trajectories varied as a function of contextual and personal characteristics. This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the….

Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures compared to traditional lecture courses in-class,…. Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people’s problem behaviours tend to cluster.

This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake.

Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture.

I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet.

The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice bap , soup guk , and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the traditional Turkish motifs and its relations among present industrial designs. Traditional Turkish motifs played a very important role in 16th century onwards. The arts of the Ottoman Empire were used because of their symbolic meanings and unique styles.

Nowadays, Turkish designers have begun to use these traditional Turkish motifs in their designs so as to create differences and awareness in the world design. The examples of these industrial designs, using the Turkish motifs, have survived and have Ottoman heritage and historical value. In this study, the Turkish motifs will be examined along with their focus on contemporary Turkish industrial designs used today. Virtual alternative to the oral examination for emergency medicine residents.

The oral examination is a traditional method for assessing the developing physician’s medical knowledge, clinical reasoning and interpersonal skills. The typical oral examination is a face-to-face encounter in which examiners quiz examinees on how they would confront a patient case.

The advantage of the oral exam is that the examiner can adapt questions to the examinee’s response. The disadvantage is the potential for examiner bias and intimidation. Computer-based virtual simulation technology has been widely used in the gaming industry. We wondered whether virtual simulation could serve as a practical format for delivery of an oral examination.

For this project, we compared the attitudes and performance of emergency medicine EM residents who took our traditional oral exam to those who took the exam using virtual simulation. Proctors scored residents using the American Board of Emergency Medicine oral examination assessment instruments, which included execution of critical actions and ratings on eight competency categories scale.

Study participants were also surveyed about their oral examination experience. We observed no differences between virtual and traditional groups on critical action scores or scores on eight competency categories. However, we noted moderate effect sizes favoring the Second Life group on the clinical competence score.

Examinees from both groups thought that their assessment was realistic, fair, objective, and efficient. Examinees from the virtual group reported a preference for the virtual format and felt that the format was less intimidating.

The virtual simulated oral examination was shown to be a feasible alternative to the traditional oral examination format for assessing EM residents. Virtual environments for oral examinations. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture. Presents a teacher’s impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women’s status, and problems due to overpopulation.

Many sustainable agricultural practices are based on local and traditional farming knowledge. This article examines the conservation and loss of three traditional practices in the Bolivian Altiplano that agronomic research has shown increase the resiliency of small farmers in the face of climate-related risks. These practices are the use of…. The Monte Carlo Quiz MCQ , a single-item quiz, is so named because chance, with the roll of a die, determines a whether the quiz is administered; b the specific article, chapter, or section of the assigned reading that the quiz covers; and c the particular question that makes up the quiz.

The MCQ encourages both punctual completion and deep…. Small battery operated unattended radar sensor for security systems. This radar sensor is designed for short range target detection and classification. The design emphasis was to have low power consumption, totally automated operation, a very high probability of detection coupled with a very low false alarm rate, be able to locate and track targets, and have a price compatible with the UGS market.

The design of this radar sensor and the testing are presented in this paper. Use of traditional medicine among type 2 diabetic Libyans. The use of traditional medicines is common among patients with chronic illnesses and this practice might pose health risks. The use among Libyan patients with diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of traditional medicine use in the previous year among Libyans with type 2 diabetes and to examine the association between its use and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients.

A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large diabetes centre in Tripoli. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the respondents, A total of 77 traditional medicine items were reported to be used, of which herbs were the most common. The use of traditional medicine for diabetes is prevalent and some of the reported items could pose health risks.

Health education programmes are suggested to raise the awareness of the health risks of this practice. A comparison of student achievement on the National Servsafe RTM Examination in an online versus a traditional classroom format.

This study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to determine whether there is a significant difference in student achievement in food sanitation using a traditional classroom or online delivery as evidenced by the results of the ServSafe exam.

Because sanitation is of the utmost importance in preventing foodborne illness, it is imperative to identify effective training delivery methods. Sixty-six participants who self-selected the delivery of the sanitation class were used in this study. The participants were given a diagnostic exam at the beginning of the course, which determined their level of pre-knowledge, and the ServSafe exam at the end of the course.

The students in online delivery had a higher mean pre-knowledge than those in traditional delivery but did not do as well, though not significantly, on the ServSafe exam. The fact that those in the online delivery began the class with a higher level of knowledge as evidenced on the diagnostic exam yet underperformed the students in the traditional program underscores the relative superiority of the traditional method. This difference is in even starker contrast when one considers that students in online delivery had more years of experience in the field than those in traditional delivery.

Because of self-selection as well as the limited sample size, it is recommended that this study be replicated in other programs in the United States.

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